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Angelfish Genetics Calculator

Enter the list of genes that each of the parents carries to create a test cross.

To see a list of common phenotypes click here.

  Colour Striples Smokey Streaked Half-black Fins Pearl Albino Blue
Sire
Dam
       
 
   
       
 
Genotypes of parents
Phenotypes
 Sire
 +/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+
 Silver
 Dam
 +/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+,+/+
 Silver

Definitions:
  • Gene: the specific segment of DNA on a chromosome that determines characteristics of an organism for a particular trait. Angelfish carry two copies of a gene (two alleles), one inherited from the dam and another from the sire.
  • Allele: the specific variation of a gene. There can be more then two possible alleles in the population but an animal can carry at most two different alleles.
  • Phenotype: the observable characteristics of a trait (silver, gold marble)
  • Genotype: the written expression of genetic makeup of a trait, it is a list of alleles that the animal carries
  • Locus: the location of a particular gene on the chromosome
  • Dominant allele: an allele that masks the expression of another allele at the same locus
  • Recessive allele: an allele that is not expressed in the presence of a dominant allele, it is only detectable in a homozygous genotype (two copies of the same allele)

Currently, there are 9 confirmed genes that determine the appearance of angelfish.
  1. Colour locus:
    This locus governs basic colour expression in angelfish.
    There are five known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (original allele from wild angefish)
    • the dark allele (incomplete dominant)
    • Gm the gold marble allele (incomplete dominant)
    • M the marble allele (incomplete dominant)
    • the gold allele (recessive)

    Phenotypes:
    • Silver (+/+)
    • Double black (D/D)
    • Hybrid black (D/M, D/Gm, D/g)
    • Black lace (D/+)
    • Marble (M/M, M/Gm, M/g)
    • Silver marble (M/+)
    • Dark gold marble (Gm/Gm)
    • White gold marble (Gm/g)
    • Silver gold marble (Gm/+)
    • Gold (g/g)

  2. Stripless/Zebra locus:
  3. This locus is responsible for zebra (additional vertical body bars) or blushing (pink gill area) phenotypes.
    There are three known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • the zebra allele (dominant)
    • S the blushing (stripless) allele

    Phenotypes:
    • Ghost (S/+)
    • Blushing (S/S)
    • Zebra (Z/+,Z/Z)
    • Clown (S/Z)

  4. Smokey locus:
  5. This locus is responsible for smokey and chocolate phenotypes.
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • Sm  the smokey allele (dominant)

    Phenotypes:
    • Chocolate (Sm/Sm)
    • Smokey (Sm/+)

  6. Streaked locus:
  7. This locus is responsible for the streaked phenotype. Angelfish carrying either one or two streaked alleles will show white streaks in the dorsal and sometimes anal fins and iridescent patches on the body. The white streaks are usually only visible in dark colored fish
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • St  the streaked allele (dominant)

    Phenotypes:
    • Streaked (St/St, St/+)

  8. Half-black locus:
  9. Half-black is a recessive gene and will be only expressed when two copies of the gene are present. Half-black angelfish show sharply bounded black colouring of the rear part of the body. This gene is very sensitive to environmental conditions (duration and intensity of the light). Fry from half-black angelfish will not always express half-black phenotype.
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • hb the half-black allele (recessive)

    Phenotypes:
    • Half-black (hb/hb)

  10. Fin length locus:
  11. This locus determines the length of dorsal, anal and caudal fins. Veiled angelfish have elongated fins compared to standard finned angelfish. Superveiled angelfish have extremely long fins which gives the fish a sagging appearance.
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • V the veiled allele (dominant)

    Phenotypes:
    • Standard fins (+/+)
    • Veiled (V/+)
    • Super veiled (V/V)

  12. Pearlscale locus:
  13. This locus causes malformation of scales and makes the scales very shiny. Angelfish with the pearlscale phenotype carry two copies of the recessive pearlscale gene. Compared to blushing angelfish, pearlscale fish show the pearlscale pattern throughout their entire body.
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • p the pearlscale allele (recessive)

    Phenotypes:
    • Regular scales (+/+ or p/+)
    • Pearlscale (p/p)

  14. Albino locus:
  15. The albino gene supresses production of dark pigment. It is a recessive gene, therefore only fish with two copies of this gene will be albino. Albino angelfish have red pupils, white stripes (if present) and light orange color.
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • a the albino allele (recessive)

    Phenotypes:
    • Non-albino fish (+/+ or a/+)
    • Albino (a/a)

  16. Philippine blue locus:
  17. This gene was very recently described by Ken Kennedy in Philippines. In double dose (two copies of the gene) it increases the blue iridescence of the fish.
    There are two known alleles of this gene:
    • the wild allele (no effect)
    • pb the blue allele (recessive)

    Phenotypes:
    • "Normal" fish (+/+ or pb/+)
    • Blue (pb/pb)

    Paraiba - has two copies of "pb" and two copies of "S" (stripless) and no dark ("D") gene
    Pinoy - has two copies of "pb" and and at least one dark ("D") allele
    Pinoy Paraiba - has two copies of "pb" and two copies of "S" (stripless) and at least on dark ("D") allele
    Platinum - has two copies of "pb" and two copies of the gold ("g") gene

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